, In 1552, Las Casas published A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. , Las Casas returned to Spain, leaving behind many conflicts and unresolved issues. However, the reforms were so unpopular back in the New World that riots broke out and threats were made against Las Casas's life. He still suggested that the loss of Indian labor for the colonists could be replaced by allowing importation of African slaves. One of its earliest residents was Puerto Rican actress Míriam Colón and activist Antonia Pantoja.. María Ramos Rosado : Catedrática Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto Río Piedras (Porto Rico) In : Bartolomé de Las Casas : Face à l'esclavage des Noir-e-s en Amériques/Caraïbes.L'aberration du Onzième Remède (1516) [en ligne].  He is also often cited as a predecessor of the liberation theology movement. , In 1848, Ciudad de San Cristóbal, then the capital of the Mexican state of Chiapas, was renamed San Cristóbal de Las Casas in honor of its first bishop. , He is a central character in the H. R. Hays historical novel The Takers of the City, published in 1946.. Der Sohn des Kaufmanns Pedro de las Casas, der Kolumbus auf dessen zweiter Reise nach Amerika begleitet hatte, wurde in Salamanca auf der Lateinschule ausgebildet und erhielt dort wohl schon niedere Weihen. Residencial Las Casas in Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico is named after Las Casas. Bartolomé de Las Casas, indigenous rights, and ecclesiastical imperalism. Las Casas feared that at the rate the exploitation was proceeding it would be too late to hinder their annihilation unless action were taken rapidly. Ardent advocate of the laws and Bartholomäus selbst kam 1502 mit dem Gouverneur Ovando nach Santo Domingo auf der Insel Hispaniola in der heutigen Dominikanischen Republik. Residencial Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas, more commonly known as Residencial Las Casas, Caserio Las Casas or Las Casas, is a public housing complex located in San Juan, Puerto Rico consisting of 417 housing units.  He witnessed many atrocities committed by Spaniards against the native Ciboney and Guanahatabey peoples. Lingering for a while in the Dominican convent of Granada, he got into conflict with Rodrigo de Contreras, Governor of Nicaragua, when Las Casas vehemently opposed slaving expeditions by the Governor. To make the proposal palatable to the king, Las Casas had to incorporate the prospect of profits for the royal treasury. Las Casas's supporters were Diego Columbus and the new chancellor Gattinara. In Peru, power struggles between conquistadors and the viceroy became an open civil war in which the conquistadors led by Gonzalo Pizarro rebelled against the New Laws and defeated and executed the viceroy Blasco Núñez Vela in 1546. This required the establishment of self-governing Indian communities on the land of colonists – who would themselves organize to provide the labor for their patron. Some historians, such as Castro, argue that he was more of a politician than a humanitarian and that his liberation policies were always combined with schemes to make colonial extraction of resources from the natives more efficient.  To make matters worse, his detractors used the event as evidence of the need to pacify the Indians using military means. This letter, which reinvoked the old conflict over the requirements for the sacrament of baptism between the two orders, was intended to bring Las Casas in disfavour. , When the hearings started in 1542, Las Casas presented a narrative of atrocities against the natives of the Indies that would later be published in 1552 as "Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias". ), Estudios sobre Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, Sevilla, Escuela de Estudios Hispano-americanos, 1974; I. Pérez Fernández, Inventario documentado de los escritos de Fr.  The overwhelming main cause was disease introduced by the Europeans. It was in essence a comparative ethnography comparing practices and customs of European and American cultures and evaluating them according to whether they were good or bad, seen from a Christian viewpoint. Fray Bartolomé de las Casas murió el 17 de julio de 1566 en el mencionado convento de Madrid, siendo sepultado en la capilla mayor.  On November 20, 1542, the emperor signed the New Laws abolishing the encomiendas and removing certain officials from the Council of the Indies. Las Casas wrote a treatise called "De unico vocationis modo" (On the Only Way of Conversion) based on the missionary principles he had used in Guatemala. This was his "Memorial de Remedios para Las Indias" of 1516. Las Casas and the commissioners traveled to Santo Domingo on separate ships, and Las Casas arrived two weeks later than the Hieronimytes. Founded in 1515, there was already a small Franciscan monastery in Cumana, and a Dominican one at Chiribichi, but the monks there were being harassed by Spaniards operating slave raids from the nearby Island of Cubagua. To restabilize the political situation the encomenderos started pushing not only for the repeal of the New Laws, but for turning the encomiendas into perpetual patrimony of the encomenderos – the worst possible outcome from Las Casas's point of view. He also came into conflict with the Bishop of Guatemala Francisco Marroquín, to whose jurisdiction the diocese had previously belonged.  The New Laws made it illegal to use Indians as carriers, except where no other transport was available, it prohibited all taking of Indians as slaves, and it instated a gradual abolition of the encomienda system, with each encomienda reverting to the Crown at the death of its holders. Residencial Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas, more commonly known as Residencial Las Casas, Caserio Las Casas or Las Casas, is a public housing complex located in San Juan, Puerto Rico consisting of 417 housing units. Su padre era Pedro de las Casas, un comerciante de familia emigrada desde Francia para establecerse y fundar la ciudad de … The second was a change in the labor policy so that instead of a colonist owning the labor of specific Indians, he would have a right to man-hours, to be carried out by no specific persons. Las Casas became a hacendado and slave owner, receiving a piece of land in the province of Cibao. Las Casas is often considered to be one of the first advocates for a universal conception of human dignity (later human rights).  At the meeting, probably after lengthy reflection, and realizing that the New Laws were lost in Mexico, Las Casas presented a moderated view on the problems of confession and restitution of property, Archbishop Juan de Zumárraga of Mexico and Bishop Julián Garcés of Puebla agreed completely with his new moderate stance, Bishop Vasco de Quiroga of Michoacán had minor reservations, and Bishops Francisco Marroquín of Guatemala and Juan Lopez de Zárate of Oaxaca did not object. Le informazioni sono tratte da: Fernandez, I.P. In 1533 he contributed to the establishment of a peace treaty between the Spanish and the rebel Taíno band of chief Enriquillo. Even some of Las Casas's enemies, such as Toribio de Benavente Motolinia, reported many gruesome atrocities committed against the Indians by the colonizers.  In 1538 Las Casas was recalled from his mission by Bishop Marroquín who wanted him to go to Mexico and then on to Spain to seek more Dominicans to assist in the mission. Some privileges were also granted to the initial 50 shareholders in Las Casas's scheme. Many of San Juan's affluent families bought property there. , Las Casas has also often been accused of exaggerating the atrocities he described in the Indies, some scholars holding that the initial population figures given by him were too high, which would make the population decline look worse than it actually was, and that epidemics of European disease were the prime cause of the population decline, not violence and exploitation. " He even drew up a budget of each pueblo's expenses to cover wages for administrators, clerics, Bachelors of Latin, doctors, surgeons, pharmacists, advocates, ranchers, miners, muleteers, hospitalers, pig herders, fishermen, etc. While bishop, Las Casas was the principal consecrator of Antonio de Valdivieso, Bishop of Nicaragua (1544). Around this time, Las Casas buildings deteriorated and most buildings still wore the original paint jobs since the 1950s, thirty years after their initial construction. Las Casas's influence turned the favor of the court against Secretary Conchillos and Bishop Fonseca. During this time the Hieronimytes had time to form a more pragmatic view of the situation than the one advocated by Las Casas; their position was precarious as every encomendero on the Islands was fiercely against any attempts to curtail their use of native labour. Asimismo, opto por una biografía más plural de Bartolomé de las Casas, que nos delinea mejor sus grandes realizaciones (esa reconducción de la conquista militar y ese trato más humano del indígena) y sus aspectos más controvertidos (en particular, el rigorismo moral de que hizo gala frente a los conquistadores, en sus reglas de confesores)».  Worried by the visions that Las Casas had drawn up of the situation in the Indies, Cardinal Cisneros decided to send a group of Hieronymite monks to take over the government of the islands. 2. Among those they equaled were the Greeks and the Romans, and they surpassed them by many good and better customs. "Memoir of a Visionary: Antonia Pantoja (Hispanic Civil Rights)"; by Antonia Pantoja; Page 40; Publisher: Arte Publico Press (June 2002); U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, https://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/4067, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Residencial_Las_Casas&oldid=981924271, Buildings and structures in San Juan, Puerto Rico, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 October 2020, at 05:45. Before a council consisting of Cardinal García de Loaysa, the Count of Osorno, Bishop Fuenleal and several members of the Council of the Indies, Las Casas argued that the only solution to the problem was to remove all Indians from the care of secular Spaniards, by abolishing the encomienda system and putting them instead directly under the Crown as royal tribute-paying subjects. Demographic studies such as those of colonial Mexico by Sherburne F. Cook in the mid-20th century suggested that the decline in the first years of the conquest was indeed drastic, ranging between 80 and 90%, due to many different causes but all ultimately traceable to the arrival of the Europeans. , The images described by Las Casas were later depicted by Theodore de Bry in copper plate engravings that helped expand the Black Legend against Spain. In addition, his critique towards the colonizers served to bring awareness to his audience on the true meaning of Christianity, to dismantle any misconceptions on evangelization. Fray Bartolomé de las Casas Blog San Juan, Puerto Rico Fray Bartolomé de las Casas es una institución educativa del nivel elemental y el centro dónde cada estudiante es guiado hacia el proceso de construir y adquirir conocimientos. Devastated, Las Casas reacted by entering the Dominican monastery of Santa Cruz in Santo Domingo as a novice in 1522 and finally taking holy vows as a Dominican friar in 1523. 978 0 8223 3930 4; 978 0 8223 3939 7", Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, Biblioteca de autor Bartolomé de las Casas, Mirror of the Cruel and Horrible Spanish Tyranny Perpetrated in the Netherlands, by the Tyrant, the Duke of Alba, and Other Commanders of King Philip II, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (Philippines), United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador, Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin, Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, National Indigenous Organization of Colombia, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bartolomé_de_las_Casas&oldid=998386578, People celebrated in the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Spanish Roman Catholic bishops in North America, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2017, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Episcopal Church (USA); The Roman Catholic Church. As Archbishop Loaysa strongly disliked Las Casas, the ceremony was officiated by Loaysa's nephew, Diego de Loaysa, Bishop of Modruš, with Pedro Torres, Titular Bishop of Arbanum, and Cristóbal de Pedraza, Bishop of Comayagua, as co-consecrators. It was named after the famous Spaniard Roman Catholic Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas, who also has a town named after him in Mexico, namely San Cristóbal de las Casas.  He continued working as a kind of procurator for the natives of the Indies, many of whom directed petitions to him to speak to the emperor on their behalf. However, it did not succeed. Las Casas appointed a vicar for his diocese and set out for Europe in December 1546, arriving in Lisbon in April 1547 and in Spain on November 1547. Today this word -used in various modifications- is still popularly used to designate the people andisland of Puerto Rico. In Spain, Las Casas started securing official support for the Guatemalan mission, and he managed to get a royal decree forbidding secular intrusion into the Verapaces for the following five years. En el gobierno de Diego Colón, España amplió su dominio a Puerto Rico, Cuba y Jamaica, siendo De las Casas soldado y encomendero. To Las Casas's dismay Bishop Marroquín openly defied the New Laws. The Crown had for example received a fifth of the large number of slaves taken in the recent Mixtón War, and so could not be held clean of guilt under Las Casas's strict rules. ... [Puerto Rico], Cuba, and Jamaica.  As a young man, in 1507, he journeyed to Rome where he observed the Festival of Flutes. Las Casas committed himself to producing 15,000 ducats of annual revenue, increasing to 60,000 after ten years, and to erecting three Christian towns of at least 40 settlers each.  In 1536 Las Casas followed a number of friars to Guatemala, where they began to prepare to undertake a mission among the Maya Indians. In 1531, he wrote a letter to Garcia Manrique, Count of Osorno, protesting again the mistreatment of the Indians and advocating a return to his original reform plan of 1516. In 1550, he participated in the Valladolid debate, in which Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda argued that the Indians were less than human, and required Spanish masters to become civilized. The Complex is located in an area that was used by the United States military beginning in 1908, as a training camp for the Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry that saw action in World War I and World War II. In fact it was not published for 314 years, until 1875. Unlike some other priests who sought to destroy the indigenous peoples' native books and writings, he strictly opposed this action. He described in detail social arrangements, distribution of work, how provisions would be divided and even how table manners were to be introduced. Cambridge University Press, 2016, 190. Travelling back to Spain to recruit more missionaries, he continued lobbying for the abolition of the encomienda, gaining an important victory by the passage of the New Laws in 1542. The encomenderos offered to buy the rights to the encomiendas from the Crown, and Charles V was inclined to accept since his wars had left him in deep economic troubles.  His father, Pedro de las Casas, a merchant, descended from one of the families that had migrated from France to found the Christian Seville; his family also spelled the name Casaus. Sauvage spoke highly of Las Casas to the king, who appointed Las Casas and Sauvage to write a new plan for reforming the governmental system of the Indies. He described the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples.. He served in the Spanish court for the remainder of his life; there he held great influence over Indies-related issues. In 1989, Las Casas was affected deeply by Hurricane Hugo, with some apartments destroyed, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) had to help some of the families in the complex. Perpignan : Presses universitaires de Perpignan, 2011 (généré le … They also carried out an inquiry into the Indian question at which all the encomenderos asserted that the Indians were quite incapable of living freely without their supervision. Sepúlveda argued that the subjugation of certain Indians was warranted because of their sins against Natural Law; that their low level of civilization required civilized masters to maintain social order; that they should be made Christian and that this in turn required them to be pacified; and that only the Spanish could defend weak Indians against the abuses of the stronger ones. 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